Glossary

A

Algacide: A substance used for killing and preventing the growth of algae.

Aliphatic Hydrocarbon: A hydrocarbon of open-chain structure such as ethane, butane and octane.

API Gravity: An arbitrary scale expressing the density of liquid hydrocarbon products.

Aromatic Hydrocarbon: Hydrocarbon molecules which contain one or more benzene rings.

B

B20: A blend of 20% biodiesel and 80% diesel.

B5: A blend of 5% biodiesel and 95% diesel.

Baseline: Refers to testing data which are used for comparison with subsequent test data.

Biodiesel: A diesel equivalent processed fuel derived from a biological source such as vegetable oil or animal fats.

C

Candidate Fuel: A test fuel being considered for comparison with another fuel.

Candidate group: A pre-specified number of engines/vehicles that use treated fuel as comparison to a group using untreated fuel.

CARB: California Air Resources Board

CCDET: California Council on Diesel Education and Technology.

Centrifugal Pump: A pump designed with a fixed impeller rotating on a fixed shaft enclosed in a casing which creates pressure on the liquid moving it through the casing.

Cetane: A colorless oily hydrocarbon C16H34 found in petroleum.

Cetane Number: A measure of the ignition value of diesel fuel that represents the percentage by volume of cetane in a mixture of liquid methylnaphthalene that gives the same ignition lag as the oil being tested — called also cetane rating.

China Lake: California location of the United States Naval Air Weapons Station (formerly the Naval Weapons Testing Laboratory).

CO: Carbon Monoxide. CO is a colorless, odorless, and poisonous gas produced by incomplete combustion of carbon in fuels.

CO2: Carbon Dioxide. A colorless, odorless, and incombustible gas formed during respiration, combustion, and organic decomposition. Under normal conditions, it is stable, inert, and nontoxic.

Combustion Improver: A technology (Viscon) that produces a more complete fuel combustion.

Compression Ignition Engine: An engine design where mixed fuel and air are compressed to the point of auto-ignition; e.g., Diesel Engine.

Control Group: The non-treatment part of an experiment where the results are compared with the treatment experiment.

D

Diesel Emission Control Strategy (DECS): A technology approved through CARB’s Verification process to reduce PM diesel exhaust exiting a diesel engine.

Distillate: That portion of a liquid which is removed as a vapor and condensed during a distillation process.

Dosage Rate: The amount of an agent administered per unit of fuel; e.g., 1 ounce of Viscon to 20 gallons of fuel.

Drum: A 55-gallon storage container for the transport of various substances.

E

Emission Control Options (ECO/VECO): En EPA category of verified options/technologies for emissions control.

EPA: Environmental Protection Agency.

Exhaust Emissions: Refers to the variety of combustion by-products produced from the combustion of fuels.

Eutrophication: An increase in chemical nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous in an ecosystem.

F

Federal Supply Schedule: A GSA authorized list of vendors and their products available to U.S. Government agencies.

Flash Point: The lowest temperature at which a liquid can form an ignitable mixture in air.

Food Grade Additive: A material which is approved by appropriate governmental agencies as a component in food stuffs.

Fuel Additive: a substance added to fuel to enhance its performance and to improve its properties.

Fuel Blending Component: Viscon – The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers Viscon to be a Fuel Blending Component (as opposed to a Fuel Additive). Viscon qualifies under both criterions that follow, with respect to exclusion of EPA registration as a Fuel Additive. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 40 79.2(e) excludes registration of (fuel additive) substances composed solely of carbon and/or hydrogen. CFR 40 79.2(d), which excludes a party (other than a fuel refiner or importer) from registration who adds a quantity of additive(s) amounting to less than 1.0 percent by volume of the resultant additive(s)/fuel mixture.

G

GSA: United States General Services Administration.

GTAT: GTA Technologies, previously held the exclusive license for Viscon.

H

Heavy Ends: The highest boiling portion of a petroleum fraction.

Homogenous Distribution: A uniform distribution of fuel components in an air/fuel mixture.

I

Injector: A device for metering the flow of a fuel into an internal combustion engine.

ISO Tank: A freight container that conforms to the International Organization for Standardization.

L

Light Ends: The lower boiling point components of a mixture of hydrocarbons.

Low Sulphur Diesel: Diesel fuel containing a maximum of 500 Parts-Per-Million Sulphur

M

Mechanical Pump: A device that uses paddles or blades to push material from one side of the pump to another.

MSDS: Material Safety Data Sheet. Provides workers and emergency personnel with proper procedures for handling or working with a particular substance.

MTBE: Methyl tertiary butyl ether. A volatile chemical compound used as an oxygenate to raise the octane number when blended with fuel.

N

NO: Nitrogen Oxide. A colorless and odorless exhaust gas of internal combustion engines.

Non-Polar: Hydrophobic compounds such as hydrocarbon liquids,

NOX: Oxides of Nitrogen. A generic term embracing chemical compounds of nitrogen and oxygen. The primary forms that occur in exhaust gasses are NO and NO2.

NO2: Nitrogen Dioxide. A poisonous brown gas often found in smog and engine exhaust fumes.

O

Octane: An Alkane chemical compound component of gasoline.

Octane Number: A term numerically indicating the relative antiknock value of a gasoline.

OEM: Original equipment manufacturer.

Opacity: The degree to which light is blocked when passing through a material.

P

PIB: Polyisobutylene. An elastomer (C4H8)n used in the manufacturing of many products such as chewing gum, sealants and inner tubes.

PM: Designation for particulate matter. A by-product of combustion.

PM10: Particulate Matter with particles 10 microns or less.

PM2.5: Particulate Matter with particles 2.5 microns or less.

Polymer: A substance composed of molecules with many repeating structural units connected by covalent bonds.

PSIP: Periodic Smoke Inspection Program

R

Rack: A location within a refinery where fuel is loaded into transport trucks.

Reference Fuel: A standard fuel against which the quality aspects of a specific fuel can be tested against.

S

Sauter Mean Diameter: The average diameter of droplets in a unit of a sprayed liquid.

Smoke Opacity: The degree to which light is blocked when directed through smoke.

Spark Ignition Engine: An internal combustion engine design in which fuel and air are ignited by a spark plug.

Steady State: An engine evaluation test protocol for the evaluation of emissions and/or performance using constant speeds and load settings.

T

TCEQ: Texas Commission on Environmental Quality

TCEQ TxLED Verification: Authority granted by the TCEQ to a commercial entity to provide a fuel additive for the purpose of achieving state-mandated NOx reductions without negative effects on PM and other gaseous emissions. Also see TxLED.

Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ): The TCEQ is the environmental agency for the state. The TCEQ has approximately 2,900 employees and 16 regional offices. The TCEQ strives to protect the state’s human and natural resources consistent with sustainable economic development. The TCEQ’s goal is clean air, clean water, and the safe management of waste. The TCEQ is the issuing state agency for Viscon’s approval in the TxLED program.

Torque: The basic power specification of an engine expressed as foot-pounds-force. A measure of how much a force acting on an object causes that object to rotate.

Tote: A container for shipping fuels and related materials.

Trans/Mix facility: A facility that separates gasoline and diesel through a distillation process.

Transient: An engine evaluation test protocol for the evaluation of emissions and/or performance characteristics that simulates various actual driving schedules.

TxLED Program: Texas Low Emissions Diesel. A state-mandated program established by the TCEQ. The Texas TxLED goal is to lower emissions of NOx and other pollutants from diesel-powered motor vehicles and nonroad equipment. It applies to diesel fuel producers, importers, common carriers, distributors, transporters, bulk terminal operators, and retailers. The rule covers 110 counties in the eastern half of Texas and applies to both on and nonroad use.

U

Ultra-low Sulphur Fuel: Diesel fuel containing 15 Parts Per Million (PPM) or less of sulphur.

V

Viscoelastic: The characterization of a material that possesses both viscous and elastic behavior under various stresses.

Viscon: A fuel blending component consisting of a high-molecular weight, pure hydrocarbon polymer.

Viscon California LLC: A Viscon production facility located in Bakersfield, California.

Viscon USA, LLC: Holds the Viscon patent.

Viscon Virginia, LLC: A Viscon production facility located in Gainesville, Virginia.

Viscosity: A measure of the resistance of a fluid to deform under stress or the resistance to flow.

W

Wet Hose Truck: Refers to a fuel delivery truck for dispensing fuel to yard or work site equipment.